31. What do you mean by program-operation independence?
Ans: Friends an operation is specified in two parts.
1. Interface (operation name and data types of its arguments).
2. Implementation (the code part)
The implementation part can be changed without affecting the interface. This is called
32. What do you mean by generalization?
Ans: Friends It is the process of finding common attributes and relations of a number of entities and defining a common super class for them.
33. What do you mean by DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM?
Ans: Friends Database Management system is a process of collecting the data from programs that enables user to create and maintain a database. In other words DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is a general purposed software system that facilitates the process of defining constructing and manipulating a database for various applications. (Defining a data base involves specifying the data types, structures and constraints for the data to be stored in the data database.) Constructing a data base is the process of storing data itself on some storage medium that is controlled by DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. Manipulating a database includes such functions as querying the data base to retrieve specific data, updating the database to reflect the changes in the mini-world.
34. What are constraints on generalization and specialization?
1. disjoint ness constraints.
2. Completeness constraints.
Disjointness constraint specifies that the subclasses of the specialization must be disjoint .i.e. an entity can be a member of at most one of the subclasses of the specialization. The reverse of it is overlapping.
Completeness constraint is a participation constraint which may be
Total specialization constraint tells that each entity in the super class must be a member of some subclass in the specialization. And partial specialization constraint allows an entity not to belong to any of the subclasses .Thus we do have the following 4 types of constraints on specialization:
1. Disjoint, total
2. Disjoint, partial
3. Overlapping, total
4. Overlapping, partial
35. What do you mean by a ternary relationship?
Ans: Friends a relationship with a degree 3 is called a ternary relationship.
36. What do you mean by real time database technology?
Ans: Friends these are all the techniques used in controlling industrial and manufacturing
37. What do you mean by aggregation and association?
Ans: Friends Aggregation is an abstraction concept for building composite objects from their component objects. The abstraction of association is used to associate objects from several independent classes.
38. What do you mean by RAID Technology?
Ans: Friends Redundant array of inexpensive (or independent) disks. The main goal of raid technology is to even out the widely different rates of performance improvement of disks against those in memory and microprocessor. Raid technology employs the technique of data striping to achieve higher transfer rates.
39. What do you mean by Hashing technique?
Ans: Friends this is a primary file organization technique that provides very fast access to records on certain search conditions. The search condition must be an equality condition on a single field, called hash field of the file.
1. Internal hashing
2. External hashing
3. Extendible hashing
4. Linear hashing
5. Partitioned hashing
40. What do you mean by a view?
Ans: Friends a view may be a subset of the database or it may contain virtual data that is
derived from the database files but is not explicitly stored.
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